Television footage showed pallbearers struggling to stop Abu Akleh s coffin from falling to the ground as baton-wielding police officers charged towards them, grabbing Palestinian flags from mourners.
Washington said it was “deeply troubled” by the scenes, while the European Union said it was “appalled” by the “unnecessary force.”
The Jerusalem Red Crescent said 33 people were injured during the procession, of whom six were hospitalised.
Israeli police said they made six arrests. A government official said mourners had thrown “rocks and glass bottles”.
In the occupied West Bank, an Israeli commando was killed during a fresh shootout with Palestinian gunmen near the flashpoint city of Jenin. The Islamic Jihad group said its fighters were responsible.
Israel and the Palestinians have traded blame over the fatal shooting of Abu Akleh during an Israeli raid in Jenin on Wednesday.
The Israeli army said an interim investigation could not determine who fired the fatal bullet, noting that stray Palestinian gunfire or Israeli sniper fire aimed at militants were both possible causes.